Deepsea Copper Mine Versus Terrestrial Mines

By Wendy Laursen 2015-06-01 19:22:26

Earth Economics has released an independent environmental and social benchmarking analysis of Nautilus Minerals’ proposed deep seabed mining project. The primary goal of the analysis was to measure the environmental and social impacts of the Solwara 1 project off Papua New Guinea in comparison with three terrestrial mines.

The report’s analysis is based on natural capital accounting and concludes that the Solwara 1 project has the potential to significantly reduce social and environmental impacts commonly associated with large surface terrestrial copper mines.

Specifically, the report compares Solwara 1 with three terrestrial mines: Bingham Canyon (Utah, U.S.), Prominent Hill (South Australia, Australia) and Intag (a proposed mine in Intag Province, Ecuador).

Solwara 1 is expected to be the world’s first commercial high-grade seafloor copper-gold mine project. The mine site is approximately 30km (18 miles) from shore in the Bismarck Sea in around 1,600m (5,000 feet) of water. The site has indicated resources of one million tons grading 7.2 percent copper, five grams (0.18 ounces) of gold per ton, 23 grams (0.81 ounces) of silver and 0.4 percent zinc. Inferred resources add 1.5 million tons of 8.1 percent copper, 6.4 grams of gold, 34 grams of silver and 0.9 percent zinc.

Global Demand

Regarding the market conditions for the project, the report findings include:

• World demand for copper continues to rise, with increasing global economic development, expanding renewable energy supplies (wind, hydro, wave geothermal, tidal power) and growing copper plumbing, electronics and communications sectors.

• Recycling is likely limited to around 35 percent of the supply of copper. Copper ore concentrations are declining. Environmental and social impacts of copper mining are rising.

• There is an urgent need to meet world copper demand while reducing fresh water use and contamination, damaging impacts to communities, mine footprints and CO2 emissions from copper mining.

• Seafloor mining has the potential to minimize the impact of copper mining by producing more copper with fewer natural capital inputs, fewer damaging outputs and a smaller area of impact.

Environmental Impacts

The proposed Solwara 1 project, when compared to the terrestrial mines, entails far less environmental and social impact and less short and long-term risks, says Nautilus.

The excavation and collection of mineralized material has been split into three individual tasks, which will each be carried out by a different seafloor production tool. The auxiliary cutter is designed as the pioneering tool which prepares the rugged sea bed for the more powerful bulk cutter. These two tools gather the excavated material; the third, the collecting machine, will collect the cut material by drawing it in as seawater slurry with internal pumps and pushing it through a flexible pipe to the subsea pump and on to the vessel via the riser and lifting system.

Terrestrial mines have significant impacts. Measured on the basis of impacts per ton of copper, the Solwara 1 project would outperform terrestrial mines:

• People will not be displaced by the proposed Solwara 1 project

• There will be no impact to food production

• There will be no impact to surface or groundwater fresh water supplies

• There will be no significant risk of disaster (e.g. mine tailing slide into communities)

• There will be no impact to pollination, soil formation, erosion, historic and cultural values

• The monetary damages (measured in terms of USD/year) resulting from terrestrial mines is estimated to be significantly more than that of the proposed Solwara 1 project (4 to 13 times per ton of copper produced for the three mines used in the comparison).

• The long-term mining liabilities for freshwater contamination, tailings and overburden failures that threaten downstream communities do not exist in Solwara 1.

Mike Johnston, CEO of Canadian-based Nautilus, said, “Growing copper demand requires our industry to look at more sustainable ways to meet this demand. As showcased in Earth Economics’ report, seafloor mining has the potential to not only provide economic benefits within the communities nearest to the operations while minimizing the impact of copper mining, it also has the potential to change the physical nature of the mining industry for the better.

“We believe that the proposed Solwara 1 project will launch a new frontier in the blue economy and resource sector. As the first publicly-listed company in the world to commercially explore seafloor mining opportunities, Nautilus is committed to leading the way and setting a high bar for developing an environmentally and socially responsible approach for the industry. Commissioning this report is part of our ongoing process to review, estimate and evaluate project impacts through objective third-party experts,” he added.

Purpose Built Vessel

It is anticipated that the proposed Solwara 1 project will commence operations in the first half of 2018 subject to project financing and completion of the company’s seafloor production equipment and vessel. The production support vessel is being built in China by Fujian Mawei Shipbuilding.

Marine Assets Corporation (MAC), a marine solutions company based in Dubai which specializes in the delivery of new build support vessels for the offshore industry, will own and provide the marine management of the vessel. The vessel will be chartered to Nautilus for a minimum period of five years at a rate of US$199,910 per day, with options to either extend the charter or purchase the vessel at the end of the five year period.

When completed, the vessel will measure 227m (750 feet) in length and 40m (130 feet) in width with accommodation for up to 180 people and generate approximately 31MW of power. All of the below deck mining equipment will be installed in the vessel during the build process to minimize the equipment integration to be completed following delivery of the vessel. The vessel is expected to be delivered by the end of 2017.

Dispute Resolved

In 2013, an arbitrator ruled in favor of the Canadian company in a dispute with Papua New Guinea over the ownership of the Solwara project after a nearly two-year battle.

Nautilus had accused the government of not coming through on its share of financing for the project, while the government had accused Nautilus of not fulfilling some of its obligations.

The report is available here.


Impact Study Delivered for Nicaraguan Canal

By Reuters 2015-06-01 18:16:03

A long-awaited study on the impact of the proposed $50 billion Nicaraguan waterway by a British consultancy has been delivered, a canal official said on Monday, the first major milestone since a symbolic groundbreaking six months ago.

The social and environmental impact study by the consultancy, Environmental Resources Management Ltd, will be discussed by an inter-institutional commission in June, before being voted on by the canal commission in July, Telemaco Talavera, spokesman of the government canal commission, said.

The 172-mile (278 km), Chinese-backed project, which the Nicaraguan government says will be operational by 2020, is one of the world’s most ambitious infrastructure schemes, but has been met with widespread incredulity.

Hong Kong-based HK Nicaragua Canal Development Investment Co Ltd (HKND Group), which is controlled by Wang Jing, a Chinese telecom mogul well connected to China’s political elite, owns the concession to build and operate the canal.

“In summary, ERM says that the project offers potential benefits for the environment and the people of Nicaragua,” Talavera told state media, without giving more details.

ERM spokesman Manuel Roman said on state media that the company was not for or against the project, adding that the study had highlighted the potential challenges of the scheme for the government and HKND to decide how to proceed.

After a chiefly symbolic groundbreaking ceremony in Managua last year, from which members of the international media were barred, Wang Jing said the environmental study would be finished by the first quarter of 2015, with excavation work beginning by the end of September.

Nicaraguan presidential spokesman Paul Oquist said in December that feasibility studies, including a McKinsey report that experts say will define interest in financing the canal, would also be ready by April.

In January, the U.S. embassy in Managua said it was concerned by a lack of information surrounding the canal, calling for all relevant documents pertaining to the project to be made public.

If completed, the canal could give China a major foothold in Central America, a region long dominated by the United States, which completed the Panama Canal a century ago.


Strike at Peru’s Top Port May Stoke Inflation

By Reuters 2015-06-01 16:46:42

A dockworkers strike at Peru’s biggest port, Callao, has hit imports of basic goods in the Andean country and will likely stoke inflation, the main exporters association said Monday.

The 18-day strike has nearly frozen activities at the northern terminal of Callao at the edge of the capital Lima, prompting $100 million in lost revenues for merchants, the Exporters Association of Peru (Adex) said.

Some 26 ships are waiting to be unloaded and serviced and another 10 are expected to arrive this week, Adex said.

“This week there will be a shortage of essential products,” said Adex spokesman Juan Carlos Leon. “There won’t be enough flour, feed for chickens, industrial supplies.”

Inflation jumped a higher-than-expected 0.56 percent in May, leaving the annual inflation rate above the central bank’s target ceiling for a third straight month.

The strike has not affected mineral shipments, which pass through a different terminal, Leon said.

APM Terminals, owned by A.P. Moller-Maersk, operates the northern terminal, which handles 75 percent of Callao’s capacity.

Dockworkers on strike are pressing for better working conditions and protesting the use of a new computerized system for selecting shifts that aims to help police investigate drug smuggling. The union previously picked shifts.

Peru is the world’s top producer of cocaine, the White House has said. Local authorities have said they are increasingly finding cocaine packages hidden in containers of exported goods.

APM Terminals did not immediately respond to requests for comment.


Sea Shepherd Buys Coast Guard Vessels

By MarEx 2015-06-01 16:38:21

Sea Shepherd Conservation Society has secured two new ships to join its international fleet.

In January, Sea Shepherd USA purchased two recently decommissioned U.S. Coast Guard patrol vessels, the USCG Block Island and the USCG Pea Island. Both are 110-foot Island-class fast patrol vessels.

The two ships now renamed the Jules Verne and the Farley Mowat, purchased in Baltimore, are now berthed in Key West, Florida.

Sea Shepherd USA now operates three vessels. In addition to the two newly acquired fast patrol boats there is the sailing ketch the R/V Martin Sheen, currently finishing its engagement with Operation Milagro, protecting the endangered vaquita in Mexico’s Sea of Cortez.

The new Farley Mowat replaces the first vessel Farley Mowat that Sea Shepherd purchased in 1997 and retired in 2008. The new vessel was purchased with a bequest left to Sea Shepherd by longtime friend, Sea Shepherd International Chair and Canadian writer Farley Mowat, who passed away a year ago this month.

The Jules Verne is named in honor of the French writer who gave the world the inspiring story of Captain Nemo. The Jules Verne is partially sponsored by supporter John Paul DeJoria’s Peace, Love & Happiness Foundation.

In 1990, Sea Shepherd purchased a 95-foot Cape-class patrol vessel from the U.S. Coast Guard that it named the Edward Abbey. In 1999, the Edward Abbey was renamed the Sirenian and Sea Shepherd donated it as a permanent patrol vessel for the Galapagos National Park Marine Reserve.

“These two ships, the Farley Mowat and the Jules Verne, give Sea Shepherd USA a combination of speed and long-range capabilities,” said Sea Shepherd Founder Captain Paul Watson. “We have already offered the Jules Verne to assist the rangers at Cocos Island National Park Marine Reserve with anti-poaching interventions, 300 miles off the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica, and the Farley Mowat has been offered to patrol the Sea of Cortez in partnership with the government of Mexico to protect the endangered vaquita.”

Sea Shepherd has been operating ships for 37 years since 1978. In total, 15 ships have carried the Sea Shepherd flag on campaigns in all the world’s oceans. During this time, more than 5,000 people have participated as volunteers on board Sea Shepherd ships.

Sea Shepherd Global, based in Amsterdam, operates the vessels Steve Irwin, Bob Barker, Sam Simon, Brigitte Bardot and the Jairo Mora Sandoval. A sixth ship, as yet unnamed, is currently being constructed and will be launched in September 2016.

The History of Sea Shepherd ships:

1. Sea Shepherd: 1978 – 1979 (Flagged U.K.) (Retired)

2. Sea Shepherd II: 1980 – 1992 (Flagged U.K.) (Retired)

3. Divine Wind: 1987-1988 (Flagged Panama) (Sold)

4. Edward Abbey/Sirenian: 1990 – 2005 (Flagged USA/Canada) (Donated -Ecuador)

5. Cleveland Amory: 1993 -1994 (Flagged Canada) (Retired)

6. Whales Forever: 1994 – 1996 (Flagged St. Vincent) (Retired)

7. Ocean Warrior/Farley Mowat: 1997 – 2008 (Flagged Canada) (Retired)

8. Robert Hunter/Steve Irwin: 2006 – present (Flagged U.K./Netherlands)

9. Gojira/Brigitte Bardot: 2010 – present (Flagged Australia)

10. Bob Barker: 2009 – present (Flagged Netherlands)

11. Sam Simon: 2012 – present (Flagged Netherlands)

12. Jairo Mora Sandoval: 2013 – present (Flagged U.K.)

13. Martin Sheen: 2013 – present (Flagged USA)

14. Farley Mowat: 2015 – present (Flagged USA)

15. Jules Verne: 2015 – present (Flagged USA)

Sea Shepherd also maintains a fleet of small boats and surveillance and documentation drones.


IMO to Adopt New Code for Gas-Fueled Ships

By MarEx 2015-06-01 15:29:04

The IMO is expected to adopt the IGF Code, a new mandatory code for gas-fueled ships, when the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) meets June 3 to 12 in London.

The IGF Code will provide mandatory provisions for the arrangement, installation, control and monitoring of machinery, equipment and systems using low-flashpoint fuels, focusing initially on LNG.

As a fuel with lower emissions than fuel oil and marine diesel oil, the use of gas as fuel, particularly liquefied natural gas (LNG), has increased in recent years. But gas as fuel poses its own set of safety challenges, which need to be properly managed. The IGF Code aims to minimize the risk to the ship, its crew and the environment, having regard to the nature of the fuels involved.

The Code addresses all areas that need special consideration for the usage of low-flashpoint fuels, taking a goal-based approach, with goals and functional requirements specified for each section forming the basis for the design, construction and operation of ships using this type of fuel.

Additionally, the IMO will address draft amendments to make the Code mandatory under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).

The proposed changes to the SOLAS amendments will provide a methodology for alternative design and arrangements for machinery, electrical installations and low-flashpoint fuel storage and distribution systems. Furthermore, they will add new regulations to require ships constructed after the date of entry into force to comply with the requirements of the IGF Code.

The MSC will also consider:

Cyber security- including a proposal to develop voluntary guidelines on cyber security practices to protect and enhance the resiliency of cyber systems supporting the operations of ports, vessels, marine facilities and other elements of the maritime transportation system.

Piracy and armed robbery against ships- The MSC will review statistics on reported incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships

Unsafe mixed migration by sea- The MSC will receive a report on the outcome of the inter-agency high-level meeting to address unsafe mixed migration by sea, which was held from 4 to 5 March 2015.

Ship routeing measures to be adopted- The MSC is expected to adopt new ship routeing measures aimed at protecting sensitive areas in the south-west Coral Sea off Australia.

Adoption of other amendments including-

Draft amendments to SOLAS regulations clarifying the provisions related to the secondary means of venting cargo tanks and the performance of ventilation systems.

Draft amendments to the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code, to improve the requirements relating to the provisions for concentrates or other cargoes which may liquefy.


Standed Tanker Arrives in Port

By Kathryn Stone 2015-06-01 12:44:22

The disabled Afromax tanker Lady M finally arrived at the Port of Las Palmas Sunday after being stranded two weeks following an onboard fire.

The 115,418 DWT fuel tanker, owned and operated by Atlas Maritime, was carrying around 90,000 tons of fuel when a May 14 fire struck the vessel, disabling its engines. The incident occurred about 500 nautical miles off the Azores Islands.

Following the fire, the Lady M was denied entry into port until inspectors could determine the condition of the vessel and that it matched descriptions from the owner. According to European Union law, petroleum tankers are forbidden from docking in foreign ports without receiving prior permission. While ascertaining the exact situation onboard, the Coast Guard ordered the vessel to stay at a location about 60 miles off the Coast of Gran Canaria.

Greenpeace Spain expressed concern over this action last Friday citing that the Lady M was carrying 13,000 tons of oil more than the Prestige vessel, which in 2002 resulted in the largest oil spill for both Spain and Portugal. The organization urged Spanish authorities to permit the vessel entry in a nearby port to avoid any potential spill of the ‘dangerous cargo’.

Four tugs assisted in bring the vessel into the Port of Las Palmas Sunday and the port authority has reported that the hull is in very good condition and not at risk of spilling oil. On Monday the Lady M was subsequently transported to the Reina Sofia dock for repairs, which are expected to take between 10 and 15 days.

The vessel was traveling from the Perisan Gulf to Texas when the fire was reported and is set to resume course once repairs are completed.